[MUSIC] FAO, OIE and WHO have been cooperating for more than 20 years. We have a bilateral cooperation agreement between FAO and WHO. We also have bilateral agreements between FAO and the OIE and the OIE and WHO. These agreements form the basis of our cooperation. Each February, the municipal councillors of these three organizations meet. In February 2016, we held the 22nd Annual Meeting of Directors General. These three organizations have several modalities of cooperation. In addition to the annual board meetings between three organizations. We have monthly conference calls between these three organizations to discuss the most current topics. Cooperation is not only at the central level, but also at the regional and country office level.
In addition, there are different systems. I will give you an example of the Codex Foodarius Commission, which is a common FAO-WHO standard for defining activities related to food standards. These are food safety standards. This is a joint FAO activity, but the OIE participates in the work of Codex as an observer. Another example is the global framework for the gradual control of cross-border outbreaks, short for GF-TADs. It is an initiative of the OIE and FAO, launched in 2004. And WHO participates as an observer in global and regional meetings. For these three organizations, there are several areas of common interest. But above all, zoonose control is the area in which three organizations have begun to cooperate. Zoonoses are diseases that infect humans and animals. While FAO and the OIE have the primary mandate to fight animal diseases, WHO`s central mandate is to protect public health. Zoonoses are diseases caused by pathogens that infect humans and animals.
Diseases such as rabies or Rift Valley fever cause serious illness and even death in animals and humans. There are other diseases such as influenza 8, 7 and 9. Or sea-CoV viral diseases that do not cause major diseases in animals. But cause illness and death in humans. To combat these diseases, cooperation between the animal health sector and the human health sector is essential. As I said earlier, zoonotic is the central element of cooperation between the three organizations. But cooperation has recently shifted to other areas, such as food security. Indeed, the OIE plays an important role in ensuring the safety of food from animals. Another area in which cooperation has intensified in recent years is antimicrobial resistance.
In 2015, the three organizations at the highest level adopted historic resolutions to combat antimicrobial resistance. Since then, three organizations have had very, very regular contacts to advance the common agenda. There will be new areas where cooperation can be intensified, such as climate change or food security. I would like to give you some examples of cooperation at different levels, at the global, regional or country levels. Globally, the eradication of smallpox disease by WHO has been a very, very important event. It was the first disease to eradicate humanity in the world. The second disease that humanity was able to eliminate was bovine plague. A bovine disease that has caused many economic disasters.
FAO, WHO and the OIE have learned from the experience of eliminating smallpox. And we have developed a new mechanism to protect the world from the resurgence of bovine plague.