When the judge decides that a good plea case is objectively fair, they must always ensure that the accused has in fact committed the crime that is the subject of guilt or no plea. This is a conversation between the judge and the accused, in which the accused must admit under oath certain facts that show their guilt. In this conversation, the judge must also ensure that the guilty plea is conscious and intelligent. The accused must understand the rights he waives, such as the right to a jury trial, the right to appear before prosecution witnesses and protection from self-charge. If the defendant is not represented at this stage, he must waive the right to counsel. They must also understand the charges and their obligations arising from the oral argument, including the sentence that is handed down. The accused should be aware of the extent of the sentences he or she could receive if the case were to be tried. Arguments were defended as a voluntary exchange, which makes both parties better off, as the accused have many procedural and material rights, including a right to a trial and an appeal against a guilty verdict. By pleading guilty, the accused waive these rights in exchange for a commitment from the prosecutor, such as a reduced charge or a more favourable sentence.  For an accused who believes that a conviction is almost certain, a reduction in sentence is more appropriate than an unlikely chance of being acquitted.  The prosecutor has obtained a conviction and avoids the need to devote time and resources to the preparation of the trial and a possible trial.  Plea`s trials also help to secure money and resources for the court where the charge is being held. It also means that victims and witnesses do not have to testify at trial, which can be traumatic in some cases.
 In particular for Canadian justice, it is possible to continue negotiations on the final decision of a criminal proceeding, even after the sentencing. Indeed, in Canada, the Crown (by common law standards) has a very broad right to challenge acquittals and also the right to challenge harsher sentences, except in cases where the sentence imposed was allowed to the maximum. Therefore, after the conviction, the Canadian defence is sometimes prompted to convince the Crown not to appeal, since the defence also does not appeal. Strictly speaking, these are not pleas, but they are largely the same reasons. Plea agreements must be approved by a judge.