Describes the bilateral and multilateral trade agreements in which this country participates, including with the United States. Contains websites and other resources for U.S. companies to get more information on how to use these agreements. Pakistan and the United States began negotiating a bilateral investment agreement (BIT) in 2004 and concluded the text in 2012, but the agreement was not signed due to reservations from Pakistani stakeholders. Pakistan has concluded bilateral investment agreements with Australia, Azerbaijan, Mauritius, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Morocco, Belarus, the Netherlands, the Belgian-Luxembourg Economic Union, Oman, the Philippines, Bosnia, Portugal, Bulgaria, Qatar, Cambodia, Romania, China, Singapore, the Czech Republic, South Korea, Denmark, Spain, Egypt, Sri Lanka, France, Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, Indonesia, Syria, Iran, Tajikistan, Italy, Tunisia, Japan, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kuwait, the United Arab Republic, the Kyrgyz Republic, the United Kingdom, Lebanon, Uzbekistan, Laos and Yemen. These investment agreements generally contain dispute settlement provisions. Where a dispute cannot be resolved through mutual consultation, investors can generally initiate arbitration proceedings in accordance with the rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes of the World Bank or the Arbitral Tribunal of the International Chamber of Commerce. Pakistan is a member of the Multilateral Investment Management Agency (MIGA), an arm of the World Bank. Pakistan and the United States signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) in 2003, which provides a forum for discussing bilateral trade issues. The last intermittency meeting of the TIFA was held in Islamabad in May 2019. Pakistan has free trade agreements with Sri Lanka, China and Malaysia. Pakistan is also a member of the South Asian Regional Cooperation Association (SAARC) and has preferential trade agreements with Iran, Indonesia and Mauritius.The United States and Pakistan have adopted a bilateral tax agreement since 1959. Pakistan has also concluded double taxation treaties with Austria, Canada, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Lebanon, Mauritius, Poland, Switzerland, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, the United Arab Emirates, Belgium, China, France, Greece, Iran, Japan, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Romania, Sweden, Belarus, Hungary, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, the Philippines, Qatar, South Africa, Syria, Tunisia, Uzbekistan, the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom, Bangladesh, the United Kingdom, Finland, India, Ireland, South Korea, Malta, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Azerbaijan and Turkey.

. See TPR Gateway for explanations and background Move the mouse over a dispute number in the following table to display the title of the dispute. Click the dispute number to go to a page with detailed information about this dispute. . . .