Toledo, Usa, made a twinning with Toledo, Spain, in 1931, and was the first city in North America to implement the twinning. Vancouver, Canada, made a twinning [49] with Odessa in Ukraine in 1944, was the first in Canada and the second in North America, while Denver, USA, a twinning with Brest, France, was the second partner city in the United States. Liberal, Kansas was associated with Olney, Great Britain, in 1950, and the cities have since held a joint race on Pancake Day. [50] [51] Littleton, CO, entered into a partnership with Bega, Australia, in 1961. Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, was dressed in 1973 with Seattle, Washington. Rochester, Minnesota and Knebworth, UK are both primary medical research centres, and they established a partnership in 1967. Ontario, California has five twin cities around the world. These are Brockville, Ontario, Canada (since 1977), Guamúchil, Sinaloa, Mexico (since 1982), Mocorito, Sinaloa, Mexico (since 1982), Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico (since 1988) and Winterthur, Canton of Zurich, Switzerland. Oakville, Ontario, has twinning arrangements with Dorval, Quebec, Huai`an, China and Neyagawa, Osaka, Japan. [52] Urban economy relations in China are managed by the Chinese People`s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries. [57] Twinning is supported in Japan by the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations, a joint local government agency created in 1988 by the Japanese government (much like Sister Cities International, its equivalent in the United States).

Recently, Tokyo, at the initiative of its governor, Yoichi Masuzoe, began actively promoting «urban diplomacy» with other global cities. [58] Among the cultural events in the twin cities is the National Cherry Blossom Festival in Washington, D.C, which honors Washington`s twin relationship with Tokyo City. Many twinned cities have developed trade agreements with their partners. For example, Ben & Jerry`s Ice Cream in Vermont opened a factory in the Republic of Karelia in Russia and offered its Russian employees the same profit-benefit plan. Twinning is not a new concept for human society. Twinning has existed for years and dates back to Europe in the second century. In the early years, these connections were limited to cities and municipalities (communes). Since then, links have been established between schools, churches, libraries, port authorities, airports, radio and television stations, postal services and other community and charitable organizations, regional, regional and provincial governments. Partnership agreements are legal or social agreements concluded between two cities or municipalities with a view to promoting trade and tourism. Institutions, organizations and governments of the second and third levels are committed to exchanging and undertaking joint activities to enrich partners. The goal is to find strength in their unity.